Sangbad Pratidin: Organic Farming New Way Instead Of Using Pesticides In Land: Misuse of synthetic and chemical fertilizers has pushed people many health problems. It has also contributed to environmental degradation to a large extent. Organic agriculture is showing the way out of this situation. Organic fertilizers quickly provide essential nutrients to crops. It also improves the chemical and physical properties of the soil. Written by Pratim Vishnu, a researcher in the crop science department of Bidhan Chandra Agricultural University, and Parijat Dey, a researcher in the soil science and agricultural chemistry department of the North Bengal Agricultural University.

Indian agricultural practices are increasingly committed to maintaining environmental balance. Along with this, organic farming methods have also become acceptable to many farmers. Many eco-friendly farmers have chosen to use organic liquid fertilizers as an alternative to synthetic and chemical fertilizers. The misuse of artificial fertilizers has pushed people to many health problems today. It has also contributed to environmental degradation to a large extent. As a result, the demand for organic agriculture is increasing rapidly worldwide. Organic fertilizers are able to rapidly supply nutrients to crops and improve the chemical and physical properties of the soil.

Why and when to use liquid fertilizer?
Liquid fertilizers act faster than granular organic fertilizers, but the use of liquid fertilizers is considered the best option in the following situations –
a) The use of organic liquid fertilizers is advisable in case of newly germinated seeds, which fail to supply the necessary nutrients.
b) Application of liquid organic fertilizers is very favorable for crops grown in tubs. However, organic liquid fertilizers should be used frequently to provide nutrients to tub-planted crops.
c) Cultivation of cold-tolerant crops is largely dependent on soil temperature because nutrients such as nitrogen are harder to absorb at cooler temperatures. Liquid fertilizers are excellent for increasing the nutrition of such plants. The effects of organic liquid fertilizers are short-lived. So using liquid fertilizers is quite popular nowadays and ideal for sustainable agriculture.

Some Organic Liquid Fertilizers and Organic Pesticides in India, Formulations, and Methods of Use

What is required to prepare panchagavya is, fresh dung 3 kg, ghee 1/2 kg, curd 1/2 kg, cow urine 2 liters, milk 1 liter, water 3 liters, and a mixing container.

Panchagavya Organic Fertilizer Preparation Method:
Mix well with fresh dung and ghee in a bowl, and cover it with a cotton cloth for 4 to 8 hours. Then mix the mixture well with water and cover again for 3 days. On the fourth day add milk, curd, and cow urine to the mixture and mix well and keep the mixture in shade for about 21 days. Panchagavya is ready for use on the 25th day.

How to use Panchagavya:
Dilute the mixture 30 times with water before using Panchagavya and strain the liquid through a cotton cloth to ensure that there are no impurities in the mixture before spraying. Generally, application once every two weeks during the growing season and once a week on the eve of flowering and fruiting will provide the expected benefits.

Brahmastra is a natural insecticide used to control caterpillars and various harmful insects. Preparation of Brahmastra The main ingredients are 2 liters of cow urine, 2 kg of neem leaves and stems, 2 kg of reeds or tobacco leaves and stems, 2 kg of mango leaves and stems, and 2 kg of karanji leaves and stems.

How to prepare Brahmastra?
To prepare brahmastra, make separate pastes of the leaves and stems of the above-mentioned ingredients and mix the ingredients well in a large bowl. After that, the mixture should be kept in a shaded place for 48 hours. Care should be taken so that the mixture is not exposed to sunlight or rain in any way. Finally, collect the required liquid by filtering the mixture into a bottle.

fire weapon
Astra can be used as both fertilizer and pesticide. The use of Agnistra will provide relief from harmful insects such as leafhoppers, leafhoppers, fruit borers, and pod borers. Astra is equally effective for vegetables, fruits, flowers, and any other agricultural crops. 50 grams of tobacco, 50 grams of raw chilies, 50 grams of garlic, 500 grams of neem leaves, and 1.5 liters of cow urine are required to make 2 liters of Astra.

How to prepare fire weapons?
Mix all the ingredients written above to make a fine paste and mix it well with cow urine and boil it. The mixture should then be left for 48 hours and the mixture should be strained on the 3rd day. Dilute 25 to 30 times with fire water before spraying.

Biomass is an excellent source of natural carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients which are mainly used as natural fertilizers in organic farming. Biomet can be prepared very easily and quickly as compared to other fertilizers like dung manure, rotted manure, and vermicompost. What you need to prepare Jivamrit is 1 kg of fresh dung, 20 liters of water, 1 liter of cow urine, 50 grams of soil, and 200 grams of jaggery.

Preparation of Jivamrit
First, take 20 liters of water in a vessel and add 1 kg of dung and 0.5-1 liter of cow urine. Then stir the solution well and keep it in the shade for 48 hours. The mixture should be stirred several times for at least 10 minutes. This mixture can be used after 2-3 days. However, after 8 days of preparation, the number of bacteria present in the liquid biota started to decrease.

The materials required for nimastra of one acre are water 200 liters, cow urine 50 ml per liter, fresh dung 10 grams per liter, and neem leaves with thin stem or seed powder 50 grams per liter.

How to prepare Nimastra?
Mix all the above-mentioned ingredients well in a plastic container. Stir the mixture well in a clockwise direction as this will spread positive energy in the mixture. Then cover the mixture with a jute sack or poly net. Care should be taken that the mixture is not exposed to direct sunlight or rainwater. Stir the mixture clockwise for at least 1 minute every morning and evening. After 48 hours strain the mixture and use it directly. No water should be added to this mixture. This will cause the mixture to lose its effectiveness.

This liquid fertilizer is prepared by mixing certain plant extracts with panchagavya. The ingredients required for making Dasgavya are fresh dung 5 kg, cow urine 3 liters, cow milk 2 liters, curd 2 liters, desi ghee 1 kg, sugarcane juice 3 liters, coconut water 3 liters, ripe banana paste 12 liters and grape juice 2 liters.

How to prepare Dashavya?
A mixture of dung and ghee should be prepared in a suitable container and fermented for 3 days. On the fourth day, the rest of the ingredients should be added and the mixture should be left for another 15 days. It is best to stir the mixture at least twice a day. After 18 days Dasagavya will be ready for use. 500 grams of jaggery can also be used instead of sugarcane juice in the preparation of Dashavya.

Sanjivak is an organic nutrient-rich liquid fertilizer that helps in increasing soil fertility. The materials required for the preparation of Sanjivak are water 300 liters, jaggery 500 grams, cow urine 100 liters, and cow dung 100 to 200 kg.

How to prepare Sanjeevak?
All the ingredients should be mixed well in a 500-liter drum and kept in shade for 10 days for decomposition. On the 11th day, the mixture should be strained and collected in a bottle. But before use, the mixture should be mixed with water and diluted 20 times.

Nectar is a liquid fertilizer rich in soil fertility-enhancing ingredients. It can also be used for seed treatment. The ingredients required to prepare amritpaani are water 200 liters of, dung 10 kg, honey or jaggery 500 g, and ghee or mustard oil 250 g/ml.

How to prepare nectar?
Mix water and jaggery well in a plastic container and add fresh dung and cow urine to the mixture stir the mixture with a wooden stick and tie the mouth of the container well with a cotton cloth. On the 4th day, the nectar will be ready for consumption. However, during preparation, the mixture is well prepared by stirring it well with a wooden stick 3 times a day.

Farmers are functional microorganisms (Farmer Efficient Microorganisms)
The ingredients required for preparing the farmer’s functional microorganism are pumpkin 3 kg, banana 1 kg, papaya 3 kg, jaggery 3 kg, eggs 5, and non-chlorinated water 10 liters.

How do farmers prepare viable microorganisms?
First, cut the vegetables into small pieces and transfer them to a clean plastic container. Then make a mixture of 10 liters of non-chlorinated water and molasses, add eggs and chopped vegetables to it and close the vessel with an airtight lid. On the 10th day remove the lid and mix well again and keep the mixture closed for 45 days. After 45 days three layers can be observed in the container. The upper thin layer is white in color, indicating continuous fermentation. The middle layer will be a pure brown liquid and the bottom layer will be a semi-solid made up of dissolved vegetables. Gradually collect the top and middle liquid in another container. The collected liquid is the farmer’s effective microbial fertilizer.

Egg lime is a liquid fertilizer
This formulation can be applied to crops like rice, wheat, banana, vegetables, fruits, and trees. It helps in plant growth. It can also be used in combination with panchagavya and vermiwash for better results. What is required to prepare egg lime liquid fertilizer is 1 egg, 200 grams of lime, and 250 grams of molasses.

How to prepare egg lime liquid fertilizer?
Squeeze the juice from about 200 grams of lime packet into a container and make a solution by adding about 250 grams of jaggery and close the container with an airtight lid. It should be kept in the shade for about 10 days. By day 10, the eggs with the shell inside the solution will become rubbery like a rubber ball. Use your hands to mix the eggs with the shell in the lime-molasses solution and top the lime-molasses solution with an equal amount of molasses solution (about 500 ml). Close the container tightly for about 10 days. After the 11th day, the formulation is ready for use as a foliar and soil spray.

Special Note:

  • When using liquid fertilizers, always follow label directions for proper liquid and application methods.
  • You can use a surfactant, such as coconut oil or a block of mild soap (1/4 teaspoon per gallon of spray) to get better results.
  • Otherwise, the spray may bead up on the leaves and you won’t get the maximum benefit.
  • On the other hand, if you use too much surfactant, it can damage the plant.
  • Any sprayer or mister can be used, from a hand-trigger unit to a knapsack sprayer.
  • But do not use a sprayer that has been used to apply herbicides.
  • The best time to spray is in the morning and evening and choose a day when no rain is forecast and the temperature is not extreme.

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